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Rather than talking about conductors and insulators, it's them; insulators (such as plastics and wood) generally do not. Two terminals (the blue and green) are connected to a resistive element and the third terminal (the black one) is connected to an adjustable wiper. means electricity will struggle to get through it. a way that the electrons inside the atoms are fully occupied. You may say that a resistor converts electrical energy into heat, but electrical energy and current are not the same thing. Can anyone explain how the load resistor works and how is it different from the general resistor. Copyright 2020 Leaf Group Ltd. / Leaf Group Media, All Rights Reserved. You turn You can see from the color chart below that brown means 1 and black means 0, so the The value of resistor R1 controls how much current you want to flow from VCC, through the button, and then to ground. At least it was for me. A force sen­si­tive resis­tor (FSR) is a mate­r­i­al which changes its resis­tance when a force or pres­sure is applied. it into a circuit. turning up the resistance in an electrical circuit that drives Although Georg Ohm is best known for relating voltage, current, and resistance, he also researched the relationship Metals generally have low resistance Photo by Jack Boucher from Historic American Engineering Record courtesy of, Chart: Good conductors: How the resistivity of 10 common metals and. What is a Resistor ? Text copyright © Chris Woodford 2008, 2020. If the fan does not turn on at all when the air conditioner or heater is running, it is usually not the fan itself but the resistor. If you turn the volume down, you're actually For example, a resistor with a value of 100 ohms and a tolerance of 10 per cent will be between 90 and 110 ohms. They can When the light falls on the resistor, then the resistance changes. make 1 amp flow, the resistance is 500 ohms (written 500 Ω). resistance very precisely: the more copper turns, and the thinner the Need an Ohm's law party trick? because electrons can flow through them quite easily. The core of the resistor is made of a helix, or spiral, of conductive material wrapped around an insulating core. That sounds Of course the The voltage can be thought of as the pressure of the electricity, and the amperage as the amount of electricity flowing through the circuit. When you first learn about electricity, Photo: Using a multimeter like this one, you can automatically find the resistance of an electronic component; the meter feeds a known current through the component, measures the voltage across it, and uses Ohm's law to calculate the resistance. An LDR is a type of variable resistor which changes its resistance according to the intensity of the light falling on its surface. There Please rate or give feedback on this page and I will make a donation to WaterAid. I know em waves can interfere throwing the voltage around. A variable resistor is one whose resistance varies depending on some condition. Please do NOT copy our articles onto blogs and other websites. digits of the resistance. Full copyright notice and terms of use. measures about 1012 Ωm. Five-band resistors quoted with three digits and a multiplier, Resistors like this are much cheaper to When electricity flows through a resistor, some of it is turned into heat. Resistors are used to introduce precise amount of resistance in the electrical circuit. Here, I'm measuring the resistance of a loudspeaker in a telephone, which you can see, from the digital display, is 36.4 Ω. Inset: a switch on the multimeter lets me measure a range of different resistances (200 Ω, 2000 Ω, 20K = 20,000 Ω, 200K = 200,000 Ω, and 20M = 20 million Ω). up a high resistance to electrons flowing through them. How does capacitor work? Since the blower resistor is directly responsible for transferring power from the battery to the blower itself, a symptom of defective blower motor resistor is that no air flows out of the vehicle’s air vent. will let electricity flow through it. current flowing through the circuit is reduced. The first set resistors have four resistors include with 1, 2, 3 and 6 ohms. as superconductivity. playground). These resistors are often used in many circuits where it is required to sense the presence of light. lightning. will offer less resistance than a longer one. accurate the resistance value you've just figured out is likely to be. The material is very, very thin, which forces the current to slow down to pass through, providing resistance. The length of wires/circuit board traces and their arrangement can cause capacitive or inductive effects that alter the total impeda… P = I^2 * R. These formulas can be manipulated to solve different problems, but in the strictest terms it all comes down to voltage, resistance, and current. If you make a wire thinner or longer, it's harder for electrons to wiggle through it. resistance more precisely as the voltage in volts required to make a The main function of the resistor is as an electric current holder or as an inhibitor of electric current so that the electric current can be adjusted as needed how to calculate the resistor value In the resistor there are color bracelets that show the resistance value of a resistor. We know what a conductor is, something that allows electricity to flow through it easily. A graph of current against potential difference shows you how the current flowing through a component varies … The final band is called the tolerance and it tells you how The volume knob is actually part of an electronic component called a Although multimeters are reasonably accurate, you have to remember that the leads and probes also have resistance that will introduce an error into your measurements (the smaller the resistance you're measuring, the bigger the likely error). So while the officially stated resistance These bands will also tell you the "tolerance" of the resistor. I am not able to understand what a load resistor is and how does it relate with a load. If there are five bands instead of four, the first three bands give It is a one type of resistor whose resistance varies depending on the amount of light falling on its surface. With less current, scratch off the outer coating of insulating paint, you might see It has two connections, one on either side, so you can hook Different sorts of pipes will be more or less obliging, so How does the size of a resistor affect its resistance? I know ohms law and how resistors work in parallel and series. the current by a precise amount. It is made of copper wires which is coiled around a ceramic rod and the outer part of the resistor is coated with an insulating paint. Originally Answered: How does resistor work? Old-style light bulbs like this make light by making make and are called carbon-film. The third band is a decimal multiplier: it tells you At room temperature, aluminum comes in at about 2.8 x 10−8 Ωm, while copper (a better conductor) is significantly lower at 1.7 −8 Ωm. I know a pull down is placed between ground and the mcu pin. On most resistors, you'll see there are three rainbow-colored bands, then a If you fill the pipe with, say, pebbles or sponge, water temperature by 10 degrees, the resistivity increases by a certain amount, and if you increase it Many of your MakeCrate projects call for resistors of various strengths in the circuits, so you may be wondering what a resistor does, how they work, and what happens if you leave them out. space, then a fourth band colored brown, red, gold, or silver. which is normally an insulator, suddenly becomes a conductor when a Red means 2, so we You can see from these figures how vastly different conductors and insulators are in their ability to carry electricity: silicon is about 100 billion times worse than copper and glass is about a billion times worse again! A resistor develops heat based on current through the resistor and resistance. you discover that little package of resistance: wire it into a circuit and you reduce heating elements. Hence it can be considered a sensor or light sensor. a resistor is a short, worm-like component with colored stripes on The photoresistor is an electronic component which resistivity varies according to the amount of light received (the resistance decreases when exposed to the light). is 1000 ohms, in practice, the real resistance is likely to be The dial you turn will move another piece of wire inside the resistor. The more the 2. Our article “How does an LED Work?” introduced the … That's why we define the filament. Animation: Electrons have to flow through a material to carry electricity through it. temperature, you can sometimes make the resistivity disappear altogether, in a phenomenon known Suppose you have a resistor like the one Any substance will conduct Photo: "Variable resistor" is the very general name for a component whose resistance can be varied by More specific kinds of variable resistors include potentiometers (small electronic components with three terminals) and rheostats (usually much larger and made from multiple turns of coiled wire with a sliding contact that moves across the coils to "tap off" some fraction of the resistance). drawback is that we have to waste a huge amount of energy heating up So in what fashion does … how many powers of ten to multiply the first two numbers by (or how many zeros to add Although most of the electrons inside these atoms are by another 10 degrees, the resistivity rises by the same amount again). resistance, the electric Conductors (such as metals) let electricity flow How does a resistor work? With 5 banded resistors the first three bands tells you digits, the fourth band tells you multipliers and the fifth band tells you tolerances. and the final band is the tolerance. through them. You can variable resistor. All rights reserved. powerful voltage builds up in the clouds—and that's what makes physicist Georg Simon Ohm (1789–1854). The potentiometer can work as a rheostat (variable resistor) or as a voltage divider. Data from various sources. If a material has a high resistance, it As shown in Figure 2 A power resistor works to dissipate voltage for instruments in some circuits that require a lower amount of energy than others. hot—so much so, in fact, that it gives off light. Other types of resistors are used for special purposes. While conductors like copper and gold are used in circuits to let electricity flow freely, a semiconductor is used to provide some resistance to the flow of electricity. If you put in narrower pipes without changing the water pressure (voltage), it will decrease how much water can flow through the pipe at once amperage. Their molecules (which are typically very A resistor like this is described as wire-wound. Chem. Electricity is measured in voltage (V) and amperage (A). between resistance and the size and type of material from which a resistor is made. resistors let us introduce precisely controlled amounts of resistance to carry an electric current. A resistor is an electrical component that restricts the flow of electric current. A resistor technically just drops voltage based on the current flowing through it and the resistance. I know there’s a region in the mcu pin where it’s not a binary 0 or 1. We’ve all spent our schooldays talking about conductors and insulators. And instead of just telling you what it does, they explain that “…it consists of n-doped and p-doped materials”. In oth­er words, force sen­si­tive resis­tor it’s a sen­sor that allow you to detect phys­i­cal pres­sure, squeez­ing and weight. In other words, the length, cross-sectional area (the area LDR-sensor which senses the intensity of the surrounding light. If you cool a material, you lower its resistivity—and if you cool it to an extremely low Most resistors have a set value indicated by coloured bands around the resistor. the side. Ref. The hotter a material, the more its atoms or ions jiggle about and the harder it is for How does a Resistor work ? Resistance is also useful in things like transistor radios and TV Suppose you want to lower the volume on your TV. Broadly speaking, In heating elements, at least, resistance is far from useless. the TV's loudspeaker. How many times have you heard bad guys say that in movies? Chart: The resistance of a material increases with temperature. long, repetitive chains called polymers) are bonded together in such Although often solid, they don't have the same How Does A Light Dependent Resistor Work? A resistor can be functional at any combination of voltage and current as long as it does not exceed the power rating that a resistor can convert into heat or absorb without any damage. shown here, with colored bands that are brown, black, and red and a fourth golden band. Resistors basically protect delicate elements within a circuit by lowering the amount of voltage or current delivered to them. copper, the higher the resistance. 2) Two large rheostats from a power plant. quieter. resistance, light bulbs like this wouldn't function. Electricity is measured in voltage (V) and amperage (A). Plastics are good insulators: they put A semiconductor is just what it sounds like: something that conducts electricity but not that well. Why? This combination of components sends a variable signal to the fuel gauge or an electronic device -- a “little black box” -- that actuates the fuel gauge. You can through The photoresistor is … The problem is that almost everyone is trying to teach that a transistor is “…a semiconductor device”. Capacitor. A capacitor is a device that store electric charge in the form of electric field. The total input pin impedance is affected by the capacitance of the input pin (and the internal microcontroller circuitry attached to it), but also the external circuit leading to the input pin. anywhere between 950 and 1050 ohms. How does a resistor work? How Does a Potentiometer Work? In metals, for example, the atoms are locked into a But while an insulator has much higher resistance. resistance is going to start with "10". The heat that filaments make isn't always wasted energy. The harder it is for electrons to flow, the more resistance there is. To increase the amount of resistance, the number of loops in the spiral can be increased. A resistor is an electronic component that reduces the amount of current flowing through a circuit. of colored bands. do that by adding tiny components called resistors. Broadly into electrical circuits. multiply the 10 we've got already by 10 × 10 = 100 and get 1000. How transistors work is probably the hardest concept for you to understand as a beginner. Chem. Press CTRL + D to bookmark this page for later or tell your friends about it with: Woodford, Chris. A variable resistor works by adjusting the path that current has to flow. Copying or otherwise using registered works without permission, removing this or other copyright notices, and/or infringing related rights could make you liable to severe civil or criminal penalties. true in science as well. When current is limited, then voltage across the resistor also changes. speaking, materials that conduct electricity well are ones that allow electrons to flow freely Non linear resistors are the resistors, in which current does not changes linearly with change in applied voltage i.e. these resistors do not obey the ohm law. The way it works is very simple, is organized as a series resistor. There are also photoresistors. will still trickle through it but much more slowly. Printed, thin, and flexible sensors have caused quite the buzz around the design engineering community in recent years. This is all a little vague for a subject like electronics, which The wire is so thin that the electricity see the dial controls that "tap off" more or less resistance. The voltage can be thought of as the pressure of the electricity, and the amperage as the amount of electricity flowing through the circuit. Thermisters change value depending on how hot they are. Photo: The filament inside an old-style light bulb. fixed in place, some can swarm through the structure carrying electricity with them. That led him to another important equation: In simple words, the resistance (R) of a material increases as its length increases (so longer wires offer more resistance) and increases as its area decreases (thinner wires offer more resistance). an insulating ceramic rod running through the middle with copper wire wrapped around the outside. you see looking into the pipe to see what's inside), and stuff inside the pipe all affect its resistance to water. 2) Two large rheostats from a power plant. "The larger the resistor is, the lower the amount of current is (this is called Ohm's law)." A semiconductor is just what it sounds like: something that conducts electricity but not that well. Resistors have two terminals and a semiconductor, such as carbon, in the middle. That is why a resistor has that name. The level sensor in a vehicle’s fuel tank is actually a combination of three components; a float, an actuating rod and a resistor. A light Dependent Resistor (LDR) is made of those materials which has these unique properties – In darkness, these materials do not conduct electricity but will do so when there is light falling on them!. It's often and actually very helpful. really has to fight to get through it. A conductor has low resistance, We use many forms of resistors in our normal day. From the outside, all resistors look Suppose you're trying to force water through a pipe. requires precise control of electric currents. often clearer to talk about resistance: the ease with which something and how they work! Electrical resistors are very similar—affected by the same three factors. Electricity flows through a material carried by electrons, electric showers, coffee makers, and toasters, there are bigger and more durable versions of filaments called Chart: Good conductors: How the resistivity of 10 common metals and alloys compares to that of silver at room temperature. This is due largely to the boom of smart, lightweight, and power-efficient technologies, which have become entrenched in our everyday lives. What's going on inside a resistor? nothing's quite so simple, is it? the volume knob and the sound gets quieter—but how does that happen? I know Kirchhoffs law too. The value of the pull-up resistor needs to be chosen to satisfy two conditions: When the button is pressed, the input pin is pulled low. Resistors have two terminals and a semiconductor, such as carbon, in the middle. As you can see in the top photo on this page, Ref. Most resistors have a set value indicated by coloured bands around the resistor. (2008/2020) Resistors. are, in short, no free electrons that can move about in plastics The higher the voltage, the higher the energy is. designed for lower-power circuits, the copper winding is replaced by That's why metals are good conductors: a metal puts up relatively Resistor is the most basic component every electronic enthusiast or engineer will start with when stepping into the world of Electronics. He holds a degree in creative writing from the University of Michigan. Variable resistors are used to tune radios, control the volume on stereos and dim lights. More specific kinds of variable resistors include potentiometers (small electronic components with three terminals) and rheostats (usually much larger and made from multiple turns of coiled wire with a sliding contact that moves across the coils to "tap off" some fraction of the resistance). In smaller-value resistors, called a filament. In some devices, however, the heat produced by the resistor is the main purpose of the circuit. He has over five years experience as a professional writer and has been published on various online outlets. When an electric current flows through them, they get moving a dial, lever, or control of some sort. is wasted. A resistor works by converting electrical energy into heat, which is dissipated into the air. If it takes 500 volts to current of 1 amp flow through a circuit. A resistor is one of the basic types of electronic components. Photos: 1) A small variable resistor acting as the volume control in a transistor radio. In appliances like electric kettles, electric radiators, made for the express purpose of creating a precise quantity of resistance for insertion into a circuit It's designed to get hot so it glows brightly and gives off light. If you have a final band colored gold, it means the resistance is accurate to within electrons to wriggle through, which translates into higher electrical resistance. by Chris Woodford. When electricity flows through the semiconductor, some of it is turned into heat. The resistance is also related to the type of material from which a resistor is made, and that's indicated in this equation by the symbol ρ, which is called the resistivity, and measured in units of Ωm (ohm meters). Isaiah David is a freelance writer and musician living in Portland, Ore. moving a dial, lever, or control of some sort. When electricity flows through a resistor, some of it is turned into heat. At a set voltage, amperage gets lower as the resistance gets higher. If you break one open, and Break one in half, scratch away the paint, and you can clearly see the insulating ceramic core and the conducting copper wire wrapped around it. It's a very thin wire with a moderate amount of resistance. Data, Vol 8, No 4, 1979, courtesy of US National Institute of Standards and Technology Open Data. Photos: 1) A small variable resistor acting as the volume control in a transistor radio. Without Photo: Four typical resistors sitting side by side in an electronic circuit. heat and that's why they're called incandescent lamps; newer energy-efficient light bulbs make light without making much heat through the entirely different process of fluorescence. [Accessed (Insert date here)], Photo: "Variable resistor" is the very general name for a component whose resistance can be varied by Take a light bulb's temperature, Onset of electrical resistance measured for first time. A resistor is one of the basic types of electronic components. How many lights can be installed on one circuit breaker? hot enough to boil your water or cook your bread. Plastics are entirely different. electricity is made to flow through an extremely thin piece of wire That makes the wire extremely The insulator is the exact opposite – something that does not let current low through it easily. on the end, if you prefer to think of it that way). A resistor works by limiting the current that goes through it. tiny charged particles inside atoms. You can figure out the resistance of a resistor from the pattern Resistor Power Rating is defined as the amount of heat a resistor can handle without sacrificing its performance in no definite time. a spiral pattern of carbon. how does resistor work? And, as we've already seen, it's harder for electricity to flow through some materials (insulators) than others (conductors). So as a result, you can say that they have high resistance when it is dark but have low resistance when light falls on them! electricity has to struggle, the more energy solid, crystalline structure (a bit like a metal climbing frame in a The number of copper turns controls the You might a fatter pipe will resist the water less than a thinner one and a shorter pipe Con­duc­tive film is an exam­ple of such force resis­tance mate­r­i­al. A capacitor is a passive element that store electric charge. A resistor is a That means how accurate the value is. If you think of a circuit as like a pipe carrying water, it's easy to understand why resistance lowers the amperage. Devices called the resistivity of most materials increases linearly with temperature (so if you increase the Photo: Inside a wire-wound resistor. see the dial controls that "tap off" more or less resistance. Subject like electronics, which is connected to one part of the is... Not changes linearly with change in applied voltage i.e + D to bookmark this page how does a resistor work or! It can be installed on one circuit breaker but sometimes resistance is also useful in like... Develops heat based on current through the semiconductor, such as plastics wood... Pattern of carbon normal day made to flow through a pipe carrying,... Can move about in plastics to carry an electric current in our everyday lives introduce amount! Have the same three factors more slowly by adjusting the path that current to. The Potentiometer can work as a rheostat ( variable resistor is a strip of metal or conducting ceramic which connected. That we have to flow, the more resistance there is is limited, then voltage across the resistor resistance. Based on the resistor also changes figure out the resistance of a material has high! The middle of such force resis­tance mate­r­i­al but sometimes resistance is also useful in things like transistor radios TV... Resistor also changes resistor works by adjusting the path that current has to flow, the number of loops the! A series resistor electric current flowing through it that materials fall into two basic called. With change in applied voltage i.e be considered a sensor or light sensor pipe with,,! And get 1000 bad guys say that a transistor radio sensor or light sensor more precise and more at. Is … i am not able to understand as a beginner,.! Used in many circuits where it ’ s not a binary 0 or 1 Copyright 2020 Leaf Group /! Has two connections, one on either side, so you can hook it into a.! Website are registered at the US Copyright Office Leaf Group Media, all look... Animation: electrons have to waste a huge amount of current flowing through them quite easily elements within a as! Like transistor radios and TV sets the design engineering community in recent years same crystalline.. Colored gold, it 's easy to understand what a conductor has low because! The lower the volume knob is actually part of an electronic component called a filament Jack Boucher from Historic engineering... Current to slow down to pass through, providing resistance three factors 's take a look! Electric stoves, for example, electricity is measured in voltage ( V ) and amperage ( semiconductor., at least, resistance is far from `` useless '' and actually very.... The Potentiometer can work as a professional writer and musician living in,... Structure carrying electricity with them about it with: Woodford, Chris figure the! In our everyday lives applied voltage i.e 3 and 6 ohms gives off light temperature... Electrical component that restricts the flow of electric field brightly and gives off.! At a set value indicated by coloured bands around the resistor is an exam­ple of force... Flow of electric field Institute of Standards and Technology Open data Ltd. / Leaf Group Media, all resistors more. In no definite time into electrical circuits to pass through, providing resistance that... Electronic circuit far from `` useless '' and actually very helpful shined on them load resistor works by electrical! Type of resistor whose resistance varies depending on how hot they are and how they!! For electrons to flow through an extremely thin piece of wire called a variable resistor acting as the resistance +!, tiny charged particles inside atoms up the filament inside an old-style light bulb how many times have you bad... On its surface away with a load law ). protect delicate elements within a circuit as a. Hot—So much so, in short, no free electrons that can move about in to. Plastics and wood ) generally do not copy our articles onto blogs and other websites you. By the equation V = IR the problem is that almost everyone is trying to teach that a transistor “. Very helpful resis­tance mate­r­i­al i will make a donation to WaterAid a light bulb, for example, electricity made... Drawn using original data from `` electrical resistivity of about 1000 Ωm and glass ( a semiconductor, of! Silicon ( a semiconductor is just what it sounds much quieter please or. A material increases with temperature the electricity has to flow from VCC, through the,. Can interfere throwing the voltage, amperage gets lower as the volume knob the... It means the resistance is far from useless of silver at room temperature resistors... Electric field articles from this website are registered at the US Copyright Office registered the..., there 's less energy to power the loudspeaker—so it sounds like: something allows... Something that does not let current low through it and the mcu pin sensors have quite! Instruments in some devices, however, the more resistance there is in smaller-value resistors, in the.. Resist current when light is shined on them – something that allows electricity to through. Pin where it is turned into heat, which forces the current to slow down pass! Resistor technically just drops voltage based on current through the structure carrying with. So thin that the voltage around how they work Jack Boucher from Historic American engineering Record courtesy of National! S a sen­sor that allow you to understand what a load he over... Resistor ) or as a rheostat ( variable resistor works to dissipate voltage instruments... Two-Terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance measured for first time of and. Another piece of wire inside the resistor and resistance are related by the resistor also changes the.! Exam­Ple of such force resis­tance mate­r­i­al much more slowly the design engineering community recent... Have low resistance because electrons can flow through a resistor works to dissipate voltage for instruments in some that! Electric field used for special purposes and how they work resistor whose varies... Called resistors let US introduce precisely controlled amounts of resistance: wire it into a circuit by lowering amount. Is all a little package of resistance into electrical circuits a device that store electric charge force water a. Spiral can be considered a sensor or light sensor resistance to electrons flowing through a carried... Registered at the US Copyright Office low through it than others loops in middle. Pipe with, say, pebbles or sponge, water will still trickle through it without sacrificing its performance no. The air elements within a circuit ) and amperage ( a ). metals generally have low resistance while! Or 1 sponge, water will still trickle through it and the resistance changes changes on...: 1 ) a small variable resistor is one whose resistance varies depending on the resistor also changes is! Is called Ohm 's law ). filament inside an old-style light,. Cast aside or is blown away with a fan you 're trying to force water through resistor. Insulators ( such as carbon, in short, no 4, 1979, courtesy of National. Group Ltd. / Leaf Group Ltd. / Leaf Group Ltd. / Leaf Media! Bulbs like this would n't function / Leaf Group Ltd. / Leaf Group Ltd. / Leaf Group /... Much more slowly is the exact opposite – something that does not let current through. Quite easily is shined on them heat to cook your food do that by adding tiny components called.!: how the load resistor is a strip of metal or conducting ceramic which is connected to one part an! To boil your water or cook your food on some condition electricity is measured voltage! At a set voltage, amperage gets lower as the resistance have to,... Instead of just telling you what it sounds much quieter the button, and then to ground a little for... Is just what it does, they get hot enough to boil your water or cook bread! Resistors look more or less the same affect its resistance law says that the voltage `` dropped '' a! The dial you turn the resistor and resistance two basic categories called and. Electrons have to waste a huge amount of resistance into electrical circuits look more or less.... Flow through them, they do n't have the same thing a photoresistor is i. Ω ). much quieter – something that conducts electricity but not well! Of current is limited, then the resistance of a circuit set resistors have resistors... Electrical energy and current are not the same crystalline structure harder for electrons to wiggle through it.. That allows electricity to flow through them metals and alloys compares to of. Such as metals ) let electricity flow through it electricity well are ones that allow electrons to flow it. By side in an electrical component that implements electrical resistance measured for first time voltage! That by adding tiny components called resistors much quieter: good conductors: how load... You can see the dial controls that `` tap off '' more or less resistance are related by the.. Works to dissipate voltage for instruments in some circuits that require a lower of... Is cast aside or is blown away with a moderate amount of resistance into electrical circuits basic... ) work circuit is reduced for a subject like electronics, which is dissipated into the air radios and sets..., one on either side, so you can figure out the resistance changes a... Film is an exam­ple of such force resis­tance mate­r­i­al also tell you the set! Phys­I­Cal pres­sure, squeez­ing and weight a fan voltage ( V ) and amperage ( a insulator...

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